Summary of Chapter 6

The Industrial Revolution
c. 1750-1850

Global trade
The new agricultural revolution
The era of (water and wind) mill power

Technological Breakthroughs
The Idea of a Vacuum
The age of coal; The steam engine
Building with iron—the Crystal Palace exhibition, the Eiffel Tower
The passenger train, modern time
Photography; the telegraph; the sewing machine
Industrialization grows more widespread; factories; the evolution of machines Mendel; Darwin.


The Industrial Revolution

Until the 1800s, people lived their lives in a fundamentally different way than we do now. They faced a range of hardships we no longer have to confront. They mostly had to make their own tools and clothes, which took considerable time. Travel took far more time than it does now. In many parts of the world, the weather was often unpredictable, and raging storms, tornados, floods and drought caused havoc for many.

The Industrial Revolution was a period of fundamental social change, which took place over 100 or so years. It was a complicated process of transformations that affected many aspects of society. The transition from basic agricultural practices to a modern industrial system was very difficult, and the shift represented a profound change in the way people lived and saw the world. It altered economies, manufacturing, social structures and services. It altered the way we live and how we see the world, and its impact continues to spread.